一.  離開杭州赴黃山前,全團參訪皖南保存完整的一批古民居村落—宏村。該村落係明清時期村落原型格局,尊重自然,負陰抱陽的選址思維,採取建築文化藝術造肇村落,亦為徽商與徽文化形成該等村落的經濟文化基礎。2000年11月30日被聯合國准予列入世界文化遺產名錄。據全陪稱,宏村始建於南宋紹興年間(約1311年),為汪氏始祖,因原居地逢戰亂火災,舉家遷入宏村雷崗山下始建十三樓,是為宏村之始。

二.  我們一行由“南湖”進入,望之頗顯池水遼闊寧靜,端閑而秀氣,水天一色,濃蔭翳如。據稱整個宏村狀如“睡牛”,為明永樂年間(1403-1424年)胡重娘觀察地形並規劃村內水道系統而建設,本著“牛臥馬馳,鶯舞鳳飛,牛富鳳貴”的哲理而佈建。因此引村外“西溪”之水,導入村中建池塘—半月型池塘,成為村中中心—“月沼”。民居前沿“月沼”與村內水溝而建,家家戶戶均有流水經過,村民在此洗滌食物、器皿。在村中行走可觀看塘渠水系精巧奇特,一條水圳從村西引入村中,經九曲十彎,貫村舍,中段甚至穿過幾戶人家內室廚房,過村中心“月沼”再流入“南湖”(於明萬曆年間1607年建),最後湖水灌村南良田,回歸“西溪”。全村房舍為徽派建築岱瓦粉牆,民居層屋疊院鱗次櫛比,古弄幽靜,粉牆斑駁,一庭一院,藉由天井引光線進入舍院,東暖夏涼,甚富匠心。

宏村狀如“睡牛”,全村以聳峙高昂之雷崗山為“牛頭”,蒼鬱青翠的古樹兩顆—銀杏、紅(楓)楊為“牛角”,樹齡在500年左右,通村鱗次櫛比的樓舍民宅為“牛身”,碧波蕩漾的“月沼”,“南湖”為“牛胃”、“牛肛”,穿堂繞屋,九曲十彎的人工水圳為“牛腸”,湖上木橋猶如“牛腿”,整個村落恰似一頭水牛靜臥在青山綠水之中。

村落路旁古樹茂盛,群鶯飛舞,融湖光山色與層樓疊院為一體。村中心點之“月沼”,古人有“夜遊月沼”詩“路轉忽開朗,月沼碧水蕩。掬水月在手,捶衣星辰遊。樓台上下映,笑語南北走。疑是天上月,一半遺宏村?”描述“月沼”夜景,至於半月塘之建設因係徽州多建此一形式,方塘似血盆照鏡,不吉,且“長盈必虧,半虧有盈”,凡是留有餘地,而依徽商精神挖掘為半月型。

宏村“承志堂”是一幢大型徽商民宅,坐落在牛腸水圳中段,為清末大鹽商宅院,被稱為“民間故宮”,建於清咸豐五年(1855年),整幢建築背倚雷崗山,前臨一泓碧水,負陰抱陽,木雕豐富而精美,可好好觀賞。

三.  臨睡前在旅行小札中記述了宏村的觀感:

「睡牛村落,天工人巧兩臻妙

九曲十彎古水圳,半個月亮落村中

彎弓射箭秀南湖,民間故宮承志堂

書院與祠堂,朱子治家格言

亭前水景綠地,銀杏、紅楊壯歲四百載

水園宅院,倒影浮光

古拙精細木雕,小家碧玉私家林園

環著月沼建築群,狀如村中水廣場

半虧有盈。徽商精神

明清建築古村落,宏村當是皖南典型。」

臺灣400年發展史上,也有若干古老村落、城區,可規劃為文化遺產。可惜不能留於聯合國,當然也與列入世界文化遺產名錄絕緣。富有文化精髓的古老街坊,望天長嘆,何者不仁,竟致台灣古鎮不能揚名於世。睡前室外溫度8℃(在黃山前山),一輪明月當空,望皓月興嘆,何日返我以台灣之名光明行走於世間?

2011.11.11



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