一.    中國清末“紅頂商人”胡雪巖於發跡後,在1872年耗鉅資在杭州元寶街興建宅邸,請設計高手精心擘劃,選用珍貴建築材料,故居內亭台樓閣富麗堂皇,明廊暗弄佈局巧妙,雕刻彩繪精美絕倫,園林造景玲瓏秀氣,家具陳設豪華氣派,被譽為“江南第一豪宅”。宅內供其母親與十三位妻妾居住,可惜在豪宅居住不滿十年即破產被掃地出門,驕奢有時,當敵不住節儉低調的平穩,今觀其故居破產的淒涼結局,實令後人深刻教訓與啟示。

二.    胡雪巖,1823年生於中國浙江杭州,取名光墉,年幼時父逝,為養家糊口,在一家小錢莊當學徒。在1860年自己籌辦“阜康錢莊”。在歷經太平天國二度攻入杭州,胡為清軍籌辦募兵經費,而早年他接濟過的浙江巡撫王有齡倚為左右手,並通令全省,“凡解餉者必由胡某匯兌,否則不納”。至此,胡遂掌握浙江戰時財經大權,後又受知於左宗棠,在左繼任浙江巡撫時,

胡攜帶20萬石米投奔,並謂左曰“匪圍杭城之際,某實領官款若干萬兩,往上海辦米。迨運回航,則城已失陷,無可交代,又不能聽其霉變,故只得運回上海變賣,今聞王師大捷,乃以所領銀購米回杭。”自此胡與左兩人展開長達20年的交往。1866年左調升陜甘總督,胡在杭州、上海為其驅使。1867年至1881年近15年間,左宗棠為鎮壓捻軍,陜甘揮軍與收復新疆行動,胡雪巖在上海為其購買泰西各國洋砲武器和籌餉,先後借銀六次,共計1770萬兩。1878年左宗棠與陜西巡輔譚鍾麟聯奏,胡終於得到朝廷“賞加黃馬褂”的殊榮,也成就了“紅頂商人”的盛名。

三.  1883年因胡經營絲茶等生意虧本,累計虧欠公、私款1000餘萬兩銀子,造成其在上海、北京、杭州、寧波、福州、江蘇、湖南等地“阜康錢莊”全部倒閉,被迫宣告破產。1884年為歸還滿人權貴文煜在“阜康錢莊”的存款,將胡慶餘堂抵押予文煜。1885年胡時年63歲,在窮困潦倒中只有四姨太陪同下而去世。死後在賃屋地別無細軟貴重之物。到1899年文、胡兩家訂了一張契約,胡雪巖的元寶街故居以價銀10萬兩銀抵押予文家。胡雪巖故居至此淹沒在滿人權貴之手中。

四.  回到台北以後,打開數位相機,逐一觀看故居照片,遂在旅行小札上記下感想:

「胡雪巖故居自肇建,易主,離析、衰落

盛衰匆促誰評說?

故居石門庫、門樓、轎廳、天井、二門、照廳

直到正廳百獅堂

東西四面廳和庭園—芝園

明廊暗弄,融冬院、頤夏院

鴛鴦廳、清雅堂、和樂堂、載福堂

芝園的大假山、荟錦堂、影憐院、冷香院

延碧堂、水池、晴雨亭、洗秋院、鎮春院

紅木家具、玲瓏奇石、掛屏、座屏、燈飾、藍色玻璃

可稱“江南第一豪宅”

清同治皇帝御賜“勉善成榮”匾額

風雨蒼黃的近代中國,大清晚期

紅頂商人胡雪巖

在政、商兩界,創造自己的神話,而今

盛衰榮辱都已煙消雲散

但卻昭示後人驕奢必敗,官商勾結必毀

如今傾毀故居修護完竣,豪宅幾度滄桑

故居風華再現

徒留讚嘆在人間。」

五.  離開胡雪巖故居後,直驅位於杭州吳山腳下的明清商店老街—河坊街。它是中國南宋時期發仞的經濟商業中心,如今整建完竣,保留古建築風貌,一泓溪水直淌商店街道,植栽綠樹清涼無比,兩岸商店房舍皆是木結構、青瓦片,顯得古色古香,整個商店街以經營古玩、字畫、旅遊紀念品、工藝品、絲織品、食品、飲食店及杭州當地土特產品,頗富歷史文化氛圍,此種老街佈局,係 “以街帶店,以商興旅,以旅促榮”,頗值台灣觀光地區之參考。

領袖有夢,築夢成真!多次旅行杭州,看到了多方面的改變,城市新貌與歷史文化相融並蓄,在傳統西湖老區外,又激發錢塘新區,下次再到杭州,或許又會觀賞到不一樣的城市境界了。

2011.11.13



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